Diagnosing CTE in the Living: Proper Control Groups and the Importance of Your Research Question

A very interesting if preliminary paper looking at the possibility of using positron emission tomography (PET) scans (similar to a CT or MRI) to measure accumulations of a protein called tau in people’s brains was published this week in the New England Journal of Medicine.

Tau is important because its accumulation in the brain is the main way that chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), a degenerative brain disease resulting from repetitive head trauma such as is experienced in contact sports like football and ice hockey, is diagnosed. CTE currently can only be diagnosed at autopsy, severely limiting research on the disease. A test for tau in the brains of the living would be a game-changer for CTE research.

A number of people, however, have been criticizing the paper for not including the right kinds of people. Specifically, while the study looked at ex-football players with cognitive and neuropsychiatric symptoms and healthy non-players, some seem confused or even suspicious about why it didn’t also include healthy ex-players? The short answer is because it shouldn’t have. Here’s why:

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